Overview & Brief History


Cardiff, the capital city of Wales, is a vibrant and dynamic city known for its rich history, cultural landmarks, and modern attractions. Situated on the southern coast of Wales, Cardiff is the political, cultural, and economic hub of the country. The city boasts a mix of historic sites, such as Cardiff Castle and the ancient Roman walls, alongside contemporary developments like the Cardiff Bay waterfront and the Millennium Stadium. As a major center for education, sports, and the arts, Cardiff offers a diverse array of experiences for residents and visitors alike.

A Brief History

The history of Cardiff dates back to Roman times when a fort was established around AD 75, known as “Fort of the Tawe,” part of the Roman Empire’s efforts to consolidate control over the region. Following the departure of the Romans, Cardiff became a significant medieval town. Cardiff Castle, originally built by the Normans on the site of the old Roman fort, served as a key defensive structure and residence for various noble families.

The Industrial Revolution brought dramatic changes to Cardiff, particularly in the 19th century. The development of the coal industry in South Wales transformed Cardiff into a major port for exporting coal. By the late 19th century, Cardiff had become the world’s leading coal-exporting port, driving the city’s rapid growth and prosperity. This period saw extensive urban development, including the construction of docks, railways, and housing to accommodate the booming population. The Bute family, especially the Marquess of Bute, played a significant role in the city’s development during this era.

In the 20th century, Cardiff was designated the capital of Wales in 1955, solidifying its status as the political and administrative heart of the country. The late 20th and early 21st centuries witnessed significant regeneration projects, particularly in Cardiff Bay. This area, once dominated by industry and docks, has been transformed into a vibrant waterfront district featuring attractions such as the Wales Millennium Centre, the Senedd (Welsh Parliament building), and numerous shops, restaurants, and entertainment venues. Today, Cardiff is a cultural hub, hosting events like the Cardiff International Food and Drink Festival, the Cardiff Singer of the World competition, and major sporting events at the Principality Stadium.

In the 20th century, Caernarfon became a center for Welsh nationalism and cultural preservation. The investiture of Prince Charles as Prince of Wales in Caernarfon Castle in 1969 symbolized a significant event in Welsh history. Today, Caernarfon is celebrated for its well-preserved medieval architecture, including the castle and town walls, as well as its vibrant Welsh culture. The town’s rich history, reflected in its landmarks and traditions, attracts visitors keen on exploring Wales’ storied past.

Things to See & Do

Cardiff Castle

This historic site is a must-visit, featuring a combination of Roman, Norman, and Victorian architecture. The opulent interiors designed by William Burges are particularly stunning, offering a glimpse into the lavish lifestyle of the Marquesses of Bute.

Cardiff Bay

Transformed from a dockland area, Cardiff Bay is now a vibrant waterfront featuring the Wales Millennium Centre, Mermaid Quay’s dining and leisure spots, and the historic Norwegian Church Arts Centre. Boat tours provide insights into Cardiff’s maritime past.


Principality Stadium

Formerly the Millennium Stadium, this state-of-the-art venue is renowned for its retractable roof and is the home of Welsh rugby. Stadium tours offer a behind-the-scenes look at its facilities and delve into the history of Welsh sports and events.


Bute Park

Bute Park, located in central Cardiff, is a 130-acre green space that was once the grounds of Cardiff Castle. It features landscaped gardens, an arboretum, and various walking and cycling paths, providing a peaceful retreat and a habitat for diverse wildlife.

Local Dining

Welsh cuisine

Cardiff’s culinary scene is a vibrant mix of traditional Welsh fare and modern gastronomy, reflecting the city’s rich cultural heritage and dynamic contemporary influences. Try Cawl, a traditional soup made with lamb or beef, leeks, potatoes, and other root vegetables.


A local favorite…

Housed in a former bank vault, The Potted Pig is known for its innovative use of local ingredients. The menu features dishes like slow-cooked pork belly and Welsh lamb, as well as an impressive selection of gins.

Insider Tips

While Cardiff Castle is a must-see, venture beyond the main tourist trail to explore the charming Victorian arcades off St. Mary Street, brimming with independent shops, cafes, and Spillers Records, the oldest record shop in the world. Established in 1894, Spillers Records is located in the historic Morgan Arcade. The arcades themselves, like Royal Arcade and Morgan Arcade, offer a unique shopping experience with their mix of quirky boutiques and cozy cafes, reflecting the city’s rich heritage.

For a more affordable dining experience, head to Cardiff Bay’s Mermaid Quay, which offers a variety of delicious street food options. Here, you can sample fresh seafood and local Welsh delicacies such as laverbread (seaweed pancakes), or simply enjoy a coffee and pastry while taking in the picturesque bay views. This area is known for its diverse eateries, providing something for every taste and budget​

Be prepared for Wales’ often unpredictable weather. Pack layers, waterproofs, and comfortable walking shoes, especially if you plan to explore the outdoors or take on hiking trails.

Virtual Tours

Cardiff Walking Tour

Inside Cardiff Castle

Mermaid Quay


Interactive Maps

Explore Cardiff Castle

Stroll the streets of Cardiff


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